Spiritual Outcomes of Park Experience: A Synthesis of Recent Social Science Research
This paper summarizes and synthesizes 16 recent works dealing with empirical research on park experience and spirituality, using the behavioural model of outdoor recreation as a framework. Antecedent conditions include personal history and current circumstances, attitude and motivation, sociodemographic characteristics, and spiritual tradition. Setting components include being in nature, being away to a different environment, and place processes such as place attachment and place meanings. Recreation components include activity, free time, solitude, and group experiences.
The paper explains how these conditions and components may lead to outcomes of spiritual experiences, spiritual well-being, and leisure-spiritual coping. The model presented takes into account the complexity of the park experience and spiritualityrelationship.
This research may help park managers to better understand the processes that link park experience with spiritual outcomes and to educate park visitors about these processes.(From the Introduction, modified)
Heintzman, Paul. “Spiritual Outcomes of Park Experience: A Synthesis of Recent Social Science Research”. The George Wright Forum. Vol. 30 (2013), nº. 3, p. 273 – 279. ISSN 0732-4715.