Holy groves in Estonian religion
The article tackles one of the most important themes of Estonian religion – holy groves (hiis). An overview is given of the historiography and sources used in the analysis of the groves. The hiis are divided into three types: the sites of older and younger group and groves situated outside the cultural landscape. It is suggested that the oldest hiis were used during the Late Bronze Age – Pre-Roman Iron Age, and in their case an imposing natural object and connection to stone graves were important features. Hiis of the younger group are more associated with the indigenous villages that started out during the Late Iron Age and the connection with graves is no longer so important. The places with hiis-toponyms that are situated outside the cultural landscape are not dated or associated with other sites in the present article.
Jonuks, Tõnno. “Holy groves in Estonian religion”. Estonian Journal of Archaeology. Vol. 11. (2007), nº. 1, p. 3-35.