Changing Concepts and Values in Natural Heritage Conservation: A View through IUCN and UNESCO Policies
Josep-Maria Mallarach & Bas Verschuuren 2019
The paper argues that new directions in natural heritage conservation increasingly place importance on the role of cultural values and subsequently seek common ground among shared values between different worldviews and knowledge systems. It discusses the following changes shifts in heritage conservation within protected and conserved areas: (i) a shift from exclusive natural assessments to more holistic, natural-cultural approaches; (ii) a shift from management to the inclusion of governance of natural heritage; (iii) a shift from scientific expert valuation to valuation by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities and other traditional knowledge holders; (iv) a shift from tangible natural values to also including cultural, spiritual and other intangible values; (v) from applying top-down legal and regulatory frameworks to bottom-up rights-based approaches including traditional laws, duties and responsibilities. Next, it describes how these changes have impacted the work developed by IUCN and UNESCO using selected examples, and looking at some of their implications and applications at the national level in various countries around the world. The paper closes with a discussion and conclusions.
Mallarach, Josep-Maria, and Bas Verschuuren. 2019. “Changing Concepts and Values in Natural Heritage Conservation: A View through IUCN and UNESCO Policies.” In Values in Heritage Management: Emerging Approaches and Research Directions. Edited by Erica Avrami, Susan Macdonald, Randall Mason, and David Myers. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust.